Before submitting copy for publication, any URLs in it should be checked and if necessary updated, particularly if they are left over from drafts written months or years previously. However, the name of the series may be omitted if it is unnumbered, unless the series title itself conveys important information see examples x and xv. Details of facsimile reprints of old books should be given as in example iii where the original publisher is responsible for the reprint, and as in example iv where different publishers are involved. References should be in the following form: Example iv also illustrates the appropriate form of reference to a work published by its author.
The first example refers to an article in an online encyclopedia: Munro Chadwick and N. The Works of Thomas Nashe , ed. Dictionary of the Middle Ages , ed. The Grapes of Wrath , dir. If a published abstract of an unpublished thesis or dissertation is known to exist, the information should be given:.
A Guide to Referencing Academic Work
Titles should normally be given in their most customary English-language form. Johnson, 2nd edn Cambridge, MA: Summers and Ted-Larry Pebworth Pittsburgh: Full references should be given as in the following examples of monographs, edited volumes, and editions of texts a commentary follows:.
BRF, Theissfol. If a book is part of a numbered series, the series title and the number in arabic numerals should be given see example viii. The first reference should ubpublished given in full in a form similar to that in the following examples:. Tom McArthur, Worlds of Reference: It is not normally necessary to include forenames or initials of publishers, unless there are two or more with the same surname:. Information should be given in the following order: Geneva, Milan, Munich, Vienna; see 3.
Modern Humanities Research Association,p. If quotation marks are used within the title, they should be double see example iiisince single quotation marks will already have been used to enclose the title unpiblished see 9.
The degree level where knownuniversity, and date should be in parentheses: If a published abstract of an unpublished thesis or dissertation is known to exist, the information should be given:. References to works of art should include at least the name of the artist if knownthe title of the work in italics see also 7.
Wilson, 5 vols Oxford: The information should be given in the following order: University of Pittsburgh Press,pp. Similarly, authors should exercise the same discretion in considering the quality and value of material published on the Internet as they would for material published by more traditional means.
The copyright of all forms of private correspondence including emails belongs to the sender, and permission is needed even for the recipient to quote from it. Harvard University Press,pp. The degree level where knownuniversity, and date should unpublishsd in parentheses:.
Modern Humanities Research Association :: Style
For example, avoid a URL followed by long query strings a question mark plus one or many ID numbers if, in fact, the address works without these. If the publication of a volume of a journal has been considerably delayed, the actual year of publication should be given in square brackets thesls the official year e. Jean Starobinski, Montaigne in Motiontrans. Similar conventions apply in the case of an article in an issue of a journal that has its own editor and a title: Proceedings of the British Academy.
In some instances for example, if each volume of a set has a different editor it may be more appropriate to give publication details only for the volume cited.
In the final example a complete book of poetry with its original pagination has been tuesis in a database forming part of a larger resource:. The place of publication, the name of the publisher, and the date of publication should be enclosed in parentheses; a colon separates the place from the publisher, a comma separates the publisher from the date.
Where section numbers or numbered paragraphs appear in the original document, they can be used to give the location of a citation. An initial definite or indefinite article should be omitted except when the title consists of the article and one other word, e.
National Gallery Company, Thseis Collection of Essays in Honour of L. Note that figures in references should be separated by full stops not commas and spaces, e.
If figures occur in titles, these should also be italicized see example x.